# Mathematical Logic and Propositional: Best Answers 007EH

Welcome to **Lesson Six – Mathematical Logic and Propositional**.

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# Introduction to Mathematical Logic and Propositional

# Proposition

A Proposition or a statement or logical sentence is a declarative sentence which is either true or false.

**Example1:** The following statements are all propositions:

- Jawaharlal Nehru is the first prime minister of India.
- It rained Yesterday.
- If x is an integer, then x
^{2}is a +ve integer.

**Example2:** The following statements are not propositions:

- Please report at 11 a.m. sharp
- What is your name?
- x
^{2}=13

## Propositional Variables

The lower case letters starting from P onwards are used to represent propositions

**Example:** p: India is in Asia

q: 2 + 2 = 4

## Compound Statements

Statements or propositional variables can be combined by means of logical connectives (operators) to form a single statement called compound statements.

The five logical connectives are:

Symbol | Connective | Name |
---|---|---|

~ | Not | Negation |

∧ | And | Conjunction |

∨ | Or | Disjunction |

⟶ | Implies or if…then | Implication or conditional |

⟷ | If and only if | Equivalence or biconditional |

# Basic Logical Operations

**1. Negation:** It means the opposite of the original statement. If p is a statement, then the negation of p is denoted by ~p and read as ‘it is not the case that p.’ So, if p is true then ~ p is false and vice versa.

**Example:** If statement p is Paris is in France, then ~ p is ‘Paris is not in France’.

p | ~ p |

T | F |

F | T |

**2. Conjunction:** It means Anding of two statements. If p, q are two statements, then “p and q” is a compound statement, denoted by p ∧ q and referred as the conjunction of p and q. The conjunction of p and q is true only when both p and q are true. Otherwise, it is false.

p | q | p ∧ q |

T | T | T |

T | F | F |

F | T | F |

F | F | F |

**3. Disjunction:** It means Oring of two statements. If p, q are two statements, then “p or q” is a compound statement, denoted by p ∨ q and referred to as the disjunction of p and q. The disjunction of p and q is true whenever at least one of the two statements is true, and it is false only when both p and q are false.

p | q | p ∨ q |

T | T | T |

T | F | T |

F | T | T |

F | F | F |

**4. Implication / if-then (⟶):** An implication p⟶q is the proposition “if p, then q.” It is false if p is true and q is false. The rest cases are true.

p | q | p ⟶ q |

T | T | T |

T | F | F |

F | T | T |

F | F | F |

**5. If and Only If (↔):** p ↔ q is bi-conditional logical connective which is true when p and q are same, i.e., both are false or both are true.

p | q | p ↔ q |

T | T | T |

T | F | F |

F | T | F |

F | F | T |

## Derived Connectors

**1. NAND:** It means negation after ANDing of two statements. Assume p and q be two propositions. Nanding of pand q to be a proposition which is false when both p and q are true, otherwise true. It is denoted by p ↑ q.

p | q | p ∨ q |

T | T | F |

T | F | T |

F | T | T |

F | F | T |

**2. NOR or Joint Denial:** It means negation after ORing of two statements. Assume p and q be two propositions. NORing of p and q to be a proposition which is true when both p and q are false, otherwise false. It is denoted by p ↑ q.

p | q | p ↓ q |

T | T | F |

T | F | F |

F | T | F |

F | F | T |

**3. XOR:** Assume p and q be two propositions. XORing of p and q is true if p is true or q is true but not both and vice-versa. It is denoted by **p ⨁ q**.

p | q | p ⨁ q |

T | T | F |

T | F | T |

F | T | T |

F | F | F |

**Example1:** Prove that X ⨁ Y ≅ (X ∧∼Y)∨(∼X∧Y).

**Solution:** Construct the truth table for both the propositions.

X | Y | X⨁Y | ∼Y | ∼X | X ∧∼Y | ∼X∧Y | (X ∧∼Y)∨(∼X∧Y) |

T | T | F | F | F | F | F | F |

T | F | T | T | F | T | F | T |

F | T | T | F | T | F | T | T |

F | F | F | T | T | F | F | F |

As the truth table for both the proposition is the same.

- X ⨁ Y ≅ (X ∧∼Y)∨(∼X∧Y). Hence Proved.

**Example2:** Show that (p ⨁q) ∨(p↓q) is equivalent to p ↑ q.

**Solution:** Construct the truth table for both the propositions.

p | q | p⨁q | (p↓q) | (p⨁q)∨ (p↓q) | p ↑ q |

T | T | F | F | F | F |

T | F | T | F | T | T |

F | T | T | F | T | T |

F | F | F | T | T | T |

# Conditional and BiConditional Statements

## Conditional Statement

Let p and q are two statements then “if p then q” is a compound statement, denoted by p→ q and referred as a conditional statement, or implication. The implication p→ q is false only when p is true, and q is false; otherwise, it is always true. In this implication, p is called the hypothesis (or antecedent) and q is called the conclusion (or consequent).

p | q | p → q |

T | T | T |

T | F | F |

F | T | T |

F | F | T |

**For Example:** The followings are conditional statements.

- If a = b and b = c, then a = c.
- If I get money, then I will purchase a computer.

## Variations in Conditional Statement

**Contrapositive:** The proposition ~q→~p is called contrapositive of p →q.

**Converse:** The proposition q→p is called the converse of p →q.

**Inverse:** The proposition ~p→~q is called the inverse of p →q.

**Example1:** Show that p →q and its contrapositive ~q→~p are logically equivalent.

**Solution:** Construct the truth table for both the propositions:

p | q | ~p | ~q | p →q | ~q→~p |

T | T | F | F | T | T |

T | F | F | T | F | F |

F | T | T | F | T | T |

F | F | T | T | T | T |

As, the values in both cases are same, hence both propositions are equivalent.

**Example2:** Show that proposition q→p, and ~p→~q is not equivalent to p →q.

**Solution:** Construct the truth table for all the above propositions:

p | q | ~p | ~q | p →q | q→p | ~p→~q |

T | T | F | F | T | T | T |

T | F | F | T | F | T | T |

F | T | T | F | T | F | F |

F | F | T | T | T | T | T |

As, the values of p →q in a table is not equal to q→p and ~p→~q as in fig. So both of them are not equal to p →q, but they are themselves logically equivalent.

## BiConditional Statement

If p and q are two statements then “p if and only if q” is a compound statement, denoted as p ↔ q and referred as a biconditional statement or an equivalence. The equivalence p ↔ q is true only when both p and q are true or when both p and q are false.

p | q | p ↔ q |

T | T | T |

T | F | F |

F | T | F |

F | F | T |

**For Example:** (i) Two lines are parallel if and only if they have the same slope.

(ii) You will pass the exam if and only if you will work hard.

**Example:** Prove that p ↔ q is equivalent to (p →q) ∧(q→p).

**Solution:** Construct the truth table for both the propositions:

p | q | p ↔ q |

T | T | T |

T | F | F |

F | T | F |

F | F | T |

p | q | p →q | q→p | (p →q)∧(q→p) |

T | T | T | T | T |

T | F | F | T | F |

F | T | T | F | F |

F | F | T | T | T |

Since, the truth tables are the same, hence they are logically equivalent. Hence Proved.

## Principle of Duality

Two formulas A_{1} and A_{2} are said to be duals of each other if either one can be obtained from the other by replacing ∧ (AND) by ∨ (OR) by ∧ (AND). Also if the formula contains T (True) or F (False), then we replace T by F and F by T to obtain the dual.

#### Note1: The two connectives ∧ and ∨ are called dual of each other.

2. Like AND and OR, ↑ (NAND) and ↓ (NOR) are dual of each other.

3. If any formula of the proposition is valid, then it’s dual of each other.

## Equivalence of Propositions

Two propositions are said to be logically equivalent if they have exactly the same truth values under all circumstances.

The table1 contains the fundamental logical equivalent expressions:

**Laws of the algebra of propositions**

Idempotent laws | (i) p ∨ p≅p | (ii) p ∧ p≅p |

Associative laws | (i) (p ∨ q) ∨ r ≅ p∨ (q ∨ r) | (ii) (p ∧ q) ∧ r ≅ p ∧ (q ∧ r) |

Commutative laws | (i) p ∨ q ≅ q ∨ p | (ii) p ∧ q ≅ q ∧ p |

Distributive laws | (i) p ∨ (q ∧ r) ≅ (p ∨ q) ∧ (p ∨ r) | (ii) p ∧ (q ∨ r) ≅ (p ∧ q) ∨ (p ∧ r) |

Identity laws | (i)p ∨ F ≅ p (iv) p ∧ F≅F | (ii) p ∧ T≅ p (iii) p ∨ T ≅ T |

Involution laws | (i) ¬¬p ≅ p | |

Complement laws | (i) p ∨ ¬p ≅ T | (ii) p ∧ ¬p ≅ T |

DeMorgan’s laws: | (i) ¬(p ∨ q) ≅ ¬p ∧ ¬q | (ii) ¬(p ∧ q) ≅¬p ∨ ¬q |

**Example:** Consider the following propositions

- ~p∨∼q and ∼(p∧q).

Are they equivalent?

**Solution:** Construct the truth table for both

p | q | ~p | ~q | ~p∨∼q | p∧q | ~(p∧q) |

T | T | F | F | F | T | F |

T | F | F | T | T | F | T |

F | T | T | F | T | F | T |

F | F | T | T | T | F | T |

# Tautologies and Contradiction

## Tautologies

A proposition P is a tautology if it is true under all circumstances. It means it contains the only T in the final column of its truth table.

**Example:** Prove that the statement (p⟶q) ↔(∼q⟶∼p) is a tautology.

**Solution:** Make the truth table of the above statement:

p | q | p→q | ~q | ~p | ~q⟶∼p | (p→q)⟷( ~q⟶~p) |

T | T | T | F | F | T | T |

T | F | F | T | F | F | T |

F | T | T | F | T | T | T |

F | F | T | T | T | T | T |

As the final column contains all T’s, so it is a tautology.

## Contradiction:

A statement that is always false is known as a contradiction.

**Example:** Show that the statement p ∧∼p is a contradiction.

**Solution:**

p | ∼p | p ∧∼p |

T | F | F |

F | T | F |

Since, the last column contains all F’s, so it’s a contradiction.

## Contingency:

A statement that can be either true or false depending on the truth values of its variables is called a contingency.

p | q | p →q | p∧q | (p →q)⟶ (p∧q ) |

T | T | T | T | T |

T | F | F | F | T |

F | T | T | F | F |

F | F | T | F | F |

# Predicate Logic

Predicate Logic deals with predicates, which are propositions, consist of variables.

**Predicate Logic – Definition**

A predicate is an expression of one or more variables determined on some specific domain. A predicate with variables can be made a proposition by either authorizing a value to the variable or by quantifying the variable.The following are some examples of predicates.

- Consider E(x, y) denote “x = y”
- Consider X(a, b, c) denote “a + b + c = 0”
- Consider M(x, y) denote “x is married to y.”

## Quantifier:

The variable of predicates is quantified by quantifiers. There are two types of quantifier in predicate logic – Existential Quantifier and Universal Quantifier.

## Existential Quantifier:

If p(x) is a proposition over the universe U. Then it is denoted as ∃x p(x) and read as “There exists at least one value in the universe of variable x such that p(x) is true. The quantifier ∃ is called the existential quantifier.

There are several ways to write a proposition, with an existential quantifier, i.e.,

(∃x∈A)p(x) or ∃x∈A such that p (x) or (∃x)p(x) or p(x) is true for some x ∈A.

## Universal Quantifier:

If p(x) is a proposition over the universe U. Then it is denoted as ∀x,p(x) and read as “For every x∈U,p(x) is true.” The quantifier ∀ is called the Universal Quantifier.

There are several ways to write a proposition, with a universal quantifier.

∀x∈A,p(x) or p(x), ∀x ∈A Or ∀x,p(x) or p(x) is true for all x ∈A.

## Negation of Quantified Propositions:

When we negate a quantified proposition, i.e., when a universally quantified proposition is negated, we obtain an existentially quantified proposition,and when an existentially quantified proposition is negated, we obtain a universally quantified proposition.

The two rules for negation of quantified proposition are as follows. These are also called DeMorgan’s Law.

**Example: Negate each of the following propositions:**

1.∀x p(x)∧ ∃ y q(y)

**Sol:** ~.∀x p(x)∧ ∃ y q(y))

≅~∀ x p(x)∨∼∃yq (y) (∴∼(p∧q)=∼p∨∼q)

≅ ∃ x ~p(x)∨∀y∼q(y)

2. (∃x∈U) (x+6=25)

**Sol:** ~( ∃ x∈U) (x+6=25)

≅∀ x∈U~ (x+6)=25

≅(∀ x∈U) (x+6)≠25

3. ~( ∃ x p(x)∨∀ y q(y)

**Sol:** ~( ∃ x p(x)∨∀ y q(y))

≅~∃ x p(x)∧~∀ y q(y) (∴~(p∨q)= ∼p∧∼q)

≅ ∀ x ∼ p(x)∧∃y~q(y))

## Propositions with Multiple Quantifiers:

The proposition having more than one variable can be quantified with multiple quantifiers. The multiple universal quantifiers can be arranged in any order without altering the meaning of the resulting proposition. Also, the multiple existential quantifiers can be arranged in any order without altering the meaning of the proposition.

The proposition which contains both universal and existential quantifiers, the order of those quantifiers can’t be exchanged without altering the meaning of the proposition, e.g., the proposition ∃x ∀ y p(x,y) means “There exists some x such that p (x, y) is true for every y.”

**Example:** Write the negation for each of the following. Determine whether the resulting statement is true or false. Assume U = R.

1.∀ x ∃ m(x^{2}<m)

**Sol:** Negation of ∀ x ∃ m(x^{2}<m) is ∃ x ∀ m (x^{2}≥m). The meaning of ∃ x ∀ m (x^{2}≥m) is that there exists for some x such that x^{2}≥m, for every m. The statement is true as there is some greater x such that x^{2}≥m, for every m.

2. ∃ m∀ x(x^{2}<m)

**Sol:** Negation of ∃ m ∀ x (x^{2}<m) is ∀ m∃x (x^{2}≥m). The meaning of ∀ m∃x (x^{2}≥m) is that for every m, there exists for some x such that x^{2}≥m. The statement is true as for every m, there exists for some greater x such that x^{2}≥m.

# Normal Forms

The problem of finding whether a given statement is tautology or contradiction or satisfiable in a finite number of steps is called the Decision Problem. For Decision Problem, construction of truth table may not be practical always. We consider an alternate procedure known as the reduction to normal forms.

There are two such forms:

- Disjunctive Normal Form (DNF)
- Conjunctive Normal Form

**Disjunctive Normal Form (DNF):** If p, q are two statements, then “p or q” is a compound statement, denoted by p ∨ q and referred as the disjunction of p and q. The disjunction of p and q is true whenever at least one of the two statements is true, and it is false only when both p and q are false

p | q | p ∨ q |

T | T | T |

T | F | T |

F | T | T |

F | F | F |

**Example: –** if p is “4 is a positive integer” and q is “√5 is a rational number”, then p ∨ q is true as statement p is true, although statement q is false.

**Conjunctive Normal Form:** If p, q are two statements, then “p and q” is a compound statement, denoted by p ∧ q and referred as the conjunction of p and q. The conjunction of p and q is true only when both p and q are true, otherwise, it is false

p | q | p ∧ q |

T | T | T |

T | F | F |

F | T | F |

F | F | F |

**Example:** if statement p is “6<7” and statement q is “-3>-4” then the conjunction of p and q is true as both p and q are true statements.

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